This Month in JNM

April 1, 2019

Discussions with leaders—JNM editor-in-chief Johannes Czernin continues a series of interviews with leaders in nuclear and molecular imaging and therapy with a conversation with Michael E. Phelps. Page 439

State of the Art—Precision cardio-oncology: Dreyfuss and colleagues offer a paradigm for precision medicine in cardiotoxin-exposed cancer patients, including imaging techniques, personalized surveillance and therapeutics, and the role of -omics in advancing understanding of disease phenotypes. Page 443

Machine learning: Uribe and colleagues present part 1 of a 2-part series introducing machine learning, neural networks, and deep learning in a nuclear medicine context, including common algorithms and ways in which these can be helpful. Page 451

Dual-labeled agent overview: Vargas and colleagues focus on new strategies for development and evaluation of targeted dual-labeled fluorescent and nuclear contrast agents, highlighting a successful first-in-human application of this technique. Page 459

Age and sex bias: Langen offers commentary on current challenges in age and sex bias in radiation research and cites possible steps toward remediation and higher methodologic standards. Page 466

Tumor/host metabolism and systemic inflammatory response: Dolan and colleagues provide a systematic review of PET/CT assessment of the relationship between tumor and host inflammatory responses, with results that may inform optimal therapeutic targeting and monitoring. Page 467

PET staging of male breast cancer: Ulaner and colleagues assess 18F-FDG PET/CT systemic staging in patients with newly diagnosed male breast cancer and determine detection rates for unsuspected distant metastases stratified by pre-PET/CT stage. Page 472

On PET/CT reporting: Zukotynski and colleagues look at key recommended components of the PET/CT report and preview an international survey on clinical reporting of PET/CT examinations in this issue of JNM. Page 478

PET/CT reporting in 2018: Freudenberg and colleagues detail the results of a survey of approaches to image reporting among active PET/CT users and comment on the findings, including the need to ensure harmonization of reporting practices. Page 480

Featured Translational Article—ABCB1/ABCG2 substrate anticancer drug delivery: Bauer and colleagues describe the potential of supratherapeutic-dose oral erlotinib to inhibit adenosine triphosphate–binding cassette transporters P-glycoprotein and breast cancer resistance protein at the blood–brain barrier. Page 486

18F-FdCyd and tetrahydrouridine PET: Young and colleagues detail first-in-human radiation dosimetry and biodistribution of 5-fluoro-2′-deoxycytidine, a DNA methyltransferase and hypermethylation inhibitor, administered with tetrahydrouridine, an inhibitor of cytidine/deoxycytidine deaminase, in patients with a variety of solid tumors undergoing FdCyd therapy. Page 492

Dose distribution in metastasis tissues: Kodaira and colleagues investigate the local concentration of α-particles from 211At-labeled trastuzumab antibodies against human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 antigens in liver metastasis tissues from mice. Page 497

PET imaging of PARP: Chen provides perspective on radiolabeling of poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase inhibitors and reviews recent evidence of the potential of associated imaging to enhance targeted anticancer therapeutics. Page 502

18F-Olaparib PET: Wilson and colleagues describe the 18F-radiolabeled isotopolog of the FDA–approved poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor olaparib, allowing direct prediction of olaparib distribution and showing promise for noninvasive tumor imaging and monitoring of radiation damage. Page 504

PSMA-RADS-3A and PSMA-RADS-3B: Yin and colleagues retrospectively review prostate-specific membrane antigen–targeted PET imaging follow-ups of soft-tissue and bone lesions in prostate cancer to determine the rate at which these underwent changes suggestive of underlying disease. Page 511

177Lu PSMA-617 dosimetry: Violet and colleagues detail the radiation dosimetry of 177Lu-prostate-specific membrane antigen–617 and evaluate pretherapeutic 68Ga-PSMA PET as a predictor of absorbed dose and whether dose in normal tissues and tumor can predict toxicity and clinical response. Page 517

Featured Clinical Investigation Article—Long-term PRRT follow-up: Gabriel and colleagues analyze 12-year outcomes of peptide receptor radionuclide therapy with 90Y-DOTATOC and 177Lu-DOTATATE in patients treated for inoperable or metastatic somatostatin receptor–positive tumors. Page 524

Delayed coronary 18F-NaF PET: Kwiecinski and colleagues determine whether delaying 18F-sodium fluoride PET image acquisition until 3 h after injection improves image quality and uptake measurements in patients with stable coronary artery disease. Page 530

Amyloid load as biomarker: Whittington and Gunn introduce and evaluate amyloid load (AβL) as a novel biomarker to quantify global amyloid-β burden and also describe an automated algorithm for its calculation. Page 536

18F-Flutemetamol PET in preclinical AD: Collij and colleagues identify an optimal approach for visual and semiquantitative 18F-flutemetamol PET assessment of amyloid disease in a cognitively normal elderly population. Page 541

Featured Article of the Month—Microglial activation and cognition: Focke and colleagues look at longitudinal 18-kDa translocator protein PET for microglial activation and amyloid PET imaging in an Alzheimer disease transgenic mouse model and evaluate correlations with terminal cognitive assessment. Page 548

CNNs for in PET/MR data: Spuhler and colleagues report on a convolutional neural network approach for synthesizing patient-specific transmission data from MR imaging with sufficient accuracy for both static and dynamic PET studies. Page 555

Vereos PET/CT performance: Rausch and colleagues evaluate the physical performance of the Vereos whole-body PET/CT system according to the National Electrical Manufacturers Association NU2-2012 standard and compare it with other state-of-the-art PET/CT systems. Page 561