Ovarian cancer occurs when certain cells within ovaries, the egg-producing female reproductive organs, grow in an uncontrolled, abnormal, manner. The cause of ovarian cancer, the fifth most common cancer among women, is unknown.
18F-FDG PET/CT images of recurrent ovarian cancer 10 months after treatment with radical surgery and adjuvant chemotherapy: maximum-intensity projection (A) and transaxial images delineating uptake of radiotracer in liver (B), peritoneum (C), and locoregional lymph nodes (D).
The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2021, 21,410 women in the United States will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer and more than 13,770 women will die from the disease. Ovarian cancer ranks fifth in cancer deaths among women, accounting for more deaths than any other cancer of the female reproductive system. A woman's risk of getting ovarian cancer during her lifetime is about 1 in 78. Her lifetime chance of dying from ovarian cancer is about 1 in 108.
Ovarian cancer is highly curable when treated at an early stage. However, because there is no effective screening test for the disease and symptoms are often vague, the majority of women are diagnosed at a late stage when survival rates are very low. Early detection and accurate diagnosis are the key to increasing ovarian cancer survival rates.
Researchers believe molecular imaging holds promise for evaluating ovarian cancer. Studies also show that hybrid imaging, such as a combined PET-CT scan, is highly accurate for detecting recurrent ovarian cancer and for determining the best possible treatment plan.
The molecular imaging technologies currently being used for ovarian cancer are positron emission tomography (PET) scanning and PET in conjunction with computer-aided tomography (PET-CT).
PET involves the use of an imaging device (PET scanner) and a tiny amount of radiotracer that is injected into the patient’s bloodstream. A frequently used PET radiotracer is fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which the body treats like the simple sugar glucose. It usually takes between 30 and 60 minutes for the FDG distribution throughout the body to become fixed. PET-CT is a combination of PET and computed tomography (CT) that provides detail on both the anatomy and function of organs and tissues. This is accomplished by superimposing the precise location of abnormal metabolic activity (from PET) against the detailed anatomic image (from CT).
PET-CT is highly accurate at detecting recurrent ovarian cancer and more accurate than CT imaging alone. Information provided by PET-CT scans:
There are many new and emerging molecular imaging technologies that may benefit people with ovarian cancer, including: