This Month in JNM

March 1, 2017

AI in medicine: Forsting offers perspective on the challenges, promise, and inevitability of artificial intelligence algorithms as an essential part of future medical imaging practice.

Imaging vulnerable plaque: Krishnan and colleagues provide a brief overview of current and promising tracers for molecular imaging of vulnerable coronary plaque and identify hurdles to routine adoption in clinical practice.

Radiomics in PET/CT: Hatt and colleagues look at the current paradigm for high-throughput extraction of quantitative metrics from medical images and preview a related article in this issue of JNM.

18F-FASu oxidative stress imaging: Yang and colleagues evaluate the suitability of the PET tracer 18F-5-fluoroaminosuberic acid for functional monitoring of system xC and discuss its potential for diagnosis and treatment monitoring in certain breast cancers.

18F-clofarabine dosimetry: Barrio and colleagues report on human whole-body and organ dosimetry of this nucleotide purine analog, a substrate for a key enzyme in the deoxyribonucleoside salvage pathway, and describe its potential as a predictive biomarker for drug response.

68Ga-NOTA-AE105 uPAR PET: Skovgaard and colleagues investigate urokinase-type plasminogen activator receptor PET imaging in a first-in-human, phase I trial in breast, prostate, and urinary bladder cancer and detail safety, biodistribution in normal tissues, and uptake in tumor lesions.

Understanding texture indices: Orlhac and colleagues analyze changes in values in 6 PET-derived texture indices computed from simulated and real patient data and provide guidance for nuclear medicine physicians in interpreting these indices in clinical practice.

18F-FLT PET repeatability: Lodge and colleagues evaluate the consistency of 18F-FLT PET findings from a multicenter trial involving patients with high-grade glioma and establish ranges beyond which SUV differences are likely the result of biologic effects.

Low-dose PET lung screening: Schaefferkoetter and colleagues apply a PET/CT analysis platform in patients with malignant lung nodules to determine the lowest practical limits for accurate image quantification while maximizing sensitivity for small, isolated lung lesions.

PET/CT texture feature repeatability: Desseroit and colleagues assess the test–retest reliability of shape and heterogeneity features in both the PET and the low-dose CT components of PET/CT and investigate the impact of image quantization.

Featured Clinical Investigation Article: 18F-fluciclovine PET in radiotherapy: Jani and colleagues explore the role of this synthetic amino acid PET radiotracer in modifying defined clinical and treatment-planning target volumes in postprostatectomy patients undergoing salvage radiotherapy and also estimate doses to organs at risk.

11C-MET or 18F-FDG PET/CT for lymphoma: Kaste and colleagues look at tumor uptake of these 2 tracers in children and young adults with Hodgkin or non-Hodgkin lymphoma and compare relative biodistributions.

18F-PSMA-1007 preclinical evaluation: Cardinale and colleagues report on production of and in vitro and small-animal prostate-specific membrane antigen targeting with this radiofluorinated molecule resembling the structure of therapeutic PSMA-617.

Labeling and quality control of PSMAHBED: Eppard and colleagues describe optimized labeling of this prostate-specific membrane antigen inhibitor using cation-exchange postprocessing of 68Ga as well as a thin-layer chromatography–based quality control system.

PSMA PET as 223Ra gatekeeper: Ahmadzadehfar and colleagues retrospectively evaluate the utility of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET for planning 223RaCl2 therapy in patients with metastatic prostate cancer, review therapeutic response, and correlate PSA changes with follow-up PSMA PET imaging.

177Lu-PSMA I&T dosimetry: Okamoto and colleagues estimate absorbed doses for normal organs and tumor lesions using this theranostic prostate-specific membrane antigen ligand in patients undergoing up to 4 cycles of therapy.

64Cu-DOTATATE vs. 68Ga-DOTATOC for NETs: Johnbeck and colleagues report on same-patient comparisons of the diagnostic performance of these 2 PET tracers in neuroendocrine tumors.

P2X7R as a neuroinflammation biomarker: Territo and colleagues report on initial physical and biologic characterization of this novel purinergic receptor subtype, which has high receptor affinity, high blood–brain barrier penetration, and the ability to be radiolabeled with 11C.

Quantifying 18F-SCH442416 analogs: Khanapur and colleagues determine an appropriate compartmental model for tracer kinetics, evaluate a reference tissue approach, and select the most suitable cerebral adenosine A2A receptor–specific PET ligands in preclinical studies.

11C-nicotine radiation dosimetry: Garg and colleagues assess the in vivo distribution of 11C-nicotine and absorbed radiation dose from whole-body 11C-nicotine PET imaging in 11 healthy individuals.

Parametric methods for 11C-phenytoin PET: Mansor and colleagues detail the performance of various methods for generating quantitative parametric images of dynamic 11C-phenytoin PET studies in data from healthy individuals.

18F-T807 pharmacokinetics in humans: Wooten and colleagues use dynamic PET imaging and metabolite-corrected arterial input functions to characterize the pharmacokinetics of this tracer developed for imaging tau protein aggregates.

18F-FDG and MMF: Van Der Gucht et al. use 18F-FDG PET imaging to detail brain metabolic abnormalities in patients with macrophagic myofascitis and explore correlations with cognitive dysfunction.

Featured Article of the Month: CXCR4 imaging in atherosclerosis: Hyafil and colleagues analyze the ability of 68Ga-pentixafor to detect CXCR4 expression on the surface of inflammatory cells in atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model.

PET and autoimmune disease: Ahn and colleagues evaluate the clinical significance of 18F-FDG uptake by the spleen in patients with febrile autoimmune disease.

99Mo without a nuclear reactor: Youker and colleagues report results for production of 99Mo from accelerator-driven subcritical fission of an aqueous solution containing low-enriched uranium.