Important Moments in the History of Nuclear Medicine
|Henri Becquerel discovered mysterious "rays" from uranium.
|Marie Curie named the mysterious rays "radioactivity."
|Henri Alexandre Danlos and Eugene Bloch placed radium in contact with a tuberculous skin lesion.
|Alexander Graham Bell suggested placing sources containing radium in or near tumors.
|Frederick Proescher published the first study on the intravenous injection of radium for therapy of various diseases.
|Seil studied the appearance of radon and radium in excreta after an intravenous injection of radium.
|Georg de Hevesy, J.A. Christiansen and Sven Lomholt performed the first radiotracer (lead-210 and bismuth-210) studies in animals.
|Herrman Blumgart and Otto Yens used bismuth-214 (radium-C) to determine the arm-to-arm circulation time in patients.
|Ernest O. Lawrence and M. Stanley Livingston published the first article on "the production of high speed light ions without the use of high voltages." It was a milestone in the production of usable quantities of radionuclides.
|O. Chieivitz and Georg de Hevesy administered phosphate labeled with phosphorus-32 to rats and demonstrated the renewal of the mineral constituents of bone.
|John H. Lawrence, the brother of Ernest, made the first clinical therapeutic application of an artificial radionuclide when he used phosphorus-32 to treat leukemia.
|Joseph Gilbert Hamilton and Robert Spencer Stone administered sodium-24 to a leukemia patient.
|John Livingood, Fred Fairbrother and Glenn Seaborg discovered iron-59.
|Joseph Gilbert Hamilton performed the first medical physiology studies of the dynamics of sodium transport in the body.
|Saul Hertz, Arthur Roberts and Robley Evans studied thyroid physiology using iodine-128
|John Livingood and Glenn Seaborg discovered iodine-131 and cobalt-60.
|Emilio Segre and Glenn Seaborg discovered technetium-99m.
|Joseph Gilbert Hamilton, Mayo Soley and Robley Evans published the first paper on the diagnostic uses of iodine-131 in patients
|Charles Pecher observed uptake of strontium-89 in bone metastases
|Martin Kamen and Sam Ruben discovered how to make carbon-14, a radioactive tracer widely used in medical and drug research.
|The Rockefeller Foundation funded the first cyclotron dedicated for biomedical radioisotope production at Washington University in St. Louis.
|Saul Hertz gave a patient the first therapeutic dose of iodine-130.
|Enrico Fermi and his associates demonstrated the first controlled chain reaction under the bleachers at Stagg Field at the University of Chicago.
|Allen Reid and Albert Keston discovered iodine-125, which became important in the field of radioimmunoassay.
|Samuel M. Seidlin, Leo D. Marinelli and Eleanor Oshry treated a patient with thyroid cancer with iodine-131, an "atomic cocktail."
|Benedict Cassen used radioiodine to determine whether a thyroid nodule accumulates iodine, helping to differentiate benign from malignant nodules.
|George Moore used iodine-131 labeled diiodofluorescein to "probe" the brain for tumors at surgery.
|Abbott Laboratories began distribution of radioistopes.
|B. Selverstone used phosphorus-32 to detect brain tumors at surgery with a probe detector.
|K.R. Crispell and John P. Storaasli used iodine-131 labeled human serum albumin (RISA) for imaging the blood pool within the heart.
|Abbott Laboratories sold the first commercial radiopharmaceutical, iodine-131 human serum albumin (RISA).
|The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved sodium iodide 1-131 for use with thyroid patients. It was the first FDA-approved radiopharmaceutical.
|Benedict Cassen, Lawrence Curtis, Clifton Reed and Raymond Libby automated a scintillation detector to "scan" the distribution of radioiodine within the thyroid gland.
|Gordon Brownell and H.H. Sweet built a positron detector based on the detection of annihilation photons by means of coincidence counting.
|Robert F. Schilling invented a test of vitamin B-12 absorption, which plays a key role in nuclear hematology.
|David Kuhl invented a photorecording system for radionuclide scanning. This development moved nuclear medicine further in the direction of radiology.
|Rex Huff measured the cardiac output in man using iodine-131 human serum albumin.
|George V. Taplin used iodine-131 labeled rose bengal to image the liver. He also used radioiodinated hippuran to measure kidney function with scintillation detectors.
|W.D. Tucker's group at the Brookhaven National Laboratory invented the iodine-132 and technetium-99m generator, making these short-lived radionuclides available at distant sites from the production of the parent radionuclides.
|H. Knipping used xenon-133 to measure lung ventilation.
|Hal Anger invented the "scintillation camera," an imaging device that made it possible to conduct dynamic studies.
|Solomon Berson and Rosalyn Yalow invented the technique of radioimmunoassay to detect insulin antibodies in human serum.
|Picker X-Ray Company delivered the first 3-inch rectilinear scanner.
|Louis G. Stang, Jr., and Powell (Jim) Richards advertised technetium-99m and other generators for sale by Brookhaven National Laboratory. Technetium-99m had not yet been used in nuclear medicine.
|John McAfee and Henry Wagner imaged the kidneys with radiomercury labeled chlormerodrin.
|Allis-Chalmers installed the first U.S. "medical center" cyclotron at Washington University Medical School. The cyclotron was designed by M.M. Ter-Pogossian.
|David Kuhl introduced emission reconstruction tomography. This method later became known as SPECT and PET. It was extended in radiology to transmission X-ray scanning, known as CT.
|John Kuranz, Nuclear Chicago, delivered the first commercial Anger camera to William Myers at Ohio State University.
|The FDA exempted the "new drug" requirements for radiopharmaceuticals regulated by the Atomic Energy Commission.
|Henry Wagner first used radiolabeled albumin aggregates for imaging lung perfusion in normal persons and patients with pulmonary embolism.
|George V. Taplin developed albumin aggregates for study of phagocytosis by the reticuloendothelial system.
|B. Ansell and B.M. Cook used radiolabeled colloids for radiation synovectomy.
|The FDA exempted the "new drug" requirements for radiopharmaceuticals regulated by the Atomic Energy Commission.
|Paul Harper and Katherine Lathrup developed radiotracers labeled with Tc-99m for the study of brain, thyroid and liver.
|Amersham marketed the first commercial radioimmunoassay kit (iodine-125 insulin kit).
|Henry Wagner and colleagues used xenon-133 ventilation scans to diagnose pulmonary embolism.
|C.L. Edwards reported the accumulation of gallium-67 in cancer.
|W. Eckelman and P. Richards developed Tc-99m "instant kit" radiopharmaceuticals. The first one was Tc-99m-DTPA.
|The FDA announced that it would gradually withdraw the exemption granted to radiopharmaceuticals and start regulating them as drugs. The change would be completed by January 20, 1977.
|The American Medical Association officially recognized nuclear medicine as a medical speciality.
|Gopal Subramanian and John McAfee introduced Tc-99m labeled phosphates for bone imaging.
|David Kuhl performed the first quantitative measurement of cerebral blood volume in living patients.
|H. William Strauss introduced the exercise stress-test myocardial scan.
|Elliot Lebowitz introduced thallium-201 for myocardial perfusion imaging, first proposed by Kawana.
|David Goldenberg demonstrated that radiolabeled antibodies against a human tumor antigen (CEA) could target and image human tumors in animals.
|John Keyes developed the first general purpose single photo emission computed tomography (SPECT) camera. Ronald Jaszczak developed the first dedicated head SPECT camera.
|N. Firusian used strontium-89 to reduce pain from metastatic bone disease.
|Ronald Jaszczak developed the first dedicated head SPECT camera.
|The FDA required manufacturers to obtain an approved new drug application for new and existing radiopharmaceuticals. The requirements are essentially the same as those for other prescription drugs.
|New England Nuclear received FDA approval to distribute thallium-201 for myocardial perfusion and the diagnosis and location of myocardial infarction.
|David Goldenberg used radiolabeled antibodies to image tumors in humans.
|J.P. Mach used radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies for tumor imaging.
|K.A. Krohn, D.R. Vera and S.M. Steffen developed the first Tc-99m labeled receptor ligand.
|Steve Larson and Jeff Carrasquillo treated cancer patients with malignant melanoma using iodine-131 labeled monoclonal antibodies.
|William Eckelman and Richard Reba carried out the first successful SPECT imaging of a neuroreceptor in humans.
|Henry Wagner carried out the first successful PET imaging of a neuroreceptor using himself as the experimental subject.
|Medi-Physics received FDA approval to market the first brain perfusion imaging radiopharmaceutical, iodine-123 IMP.
|The first Tc-99m brain perfusion radiopharmaceutical, introduced by Amersham, was approved by the FDA for the diagnosis of stroke.
|The FDA approved the first positron radiopharmaceutical (rubidium-82) for myocardial perfusion imaging.
|Steve Lamberts and Eric Krenning imaged endocrine tumors with somatostatin receptor-binding radiotracers.
|Loyola University Nuclear Information System (LUNIS), the first educational worldwide interactive computer network for nuclear medicine, went on line.
|Alan Fischman used indium-111 labeled chemotactic peptides to detect foci of infection.
|The first Tc99m myocardial agent approved by FDA.
|The FDA approved the first monoclonal antibody radiopharmaceutical for tumor imaging.
|Medi-Physics/Amersham received FDA approval to market strontium-89 chloride for relief of bone pain.
|Mallinckrodt received FDA approval to market the first peptide radiopharmaceutical that binds somatostatin receptors for imaging granulomatous and autoimmune diseases.
|ADAC Laboratories shipped the first SPECT camera to offer coincidence detection capable of FDG/PET imaging.
|"Legitimacy" of brain PET
|Validation of 123I-beta-CIT in assessing dopamine transporters in the diagnosis of Parkinson's disease.
|FDG PET studies were used to assess the response of an initial dose of chemotherapy to predict the response to subsequent high-dose chemotherapy.
|Sentinel node studies approved by HCFA for improved diagnosis and management of cancers.
|Time Magazine recognizes Siemens Biograph as the invention of the year.
|16.9 million nuclear medicine procedures were performed in the United States.
|Formation of the National Institute for Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering in the National Institutes of Health.
|FDA gives approval to IDEC Pharmaceuticals for clinical use of Zevalin™, a radioimmunotherapy agent.
|The Society of Nuclear Medicine celebrates its 50th anniversary.
|SNM inaugurates the PET Center of Excellence to advance the practice of nuclear medicine procedures, which are safe and effective ways to identify disease.
|FDA approves the use of Bexxar™ for use in lymphoma.
|SNM's Education & Research Foundation received $6 million from the Hal Anger Estate, the largest gift ever received for advancing the field of nuclear medicine.
|The society changes its name from the "Society of Nuclear Medicine" to "SNM: Advancing Molecular Imaging and Therapy" to reflect the widening scope of the society.
|SNM founds the Molecular Imaging Center of Excellence and expands the society's mission to focus on the fields of molecular imaging and nuclear medicine and applications for detecting, diagnosing and treating many types of disease.
|RT-Image names SNM "most influential" in radiology.
|40th anniversary of the publication of Dr. Henry Wagner's seminal text, Principles of Nuclear Medicine.
|The first hybrid PET/MRI system for humans, created by Siemens, was installed.
|Molecular imaging sees increasingly widespread fusion of images with PET/CT scans, which permit a functional understanding of the underlying causes of disease in the body by joining functional and anatomical information in the same image.
|SNM holds its 55th Annual Meeting in New Orleans and prepares to mark its 55th anniversary in 2009.